Friday, February 7, 2020

Medical Negligence and Malpractice Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Medical Negligence and Malpractice - Essay Example Personal cases of medical professionals will also be discussed where they reveal the true face of pharmaceutical industry in addition to the existing laws against such practice. Finally suggestions and recommendations will be made to effectively handle such problems. According to the Canadian Bar Association (2010), Medical professionals are under strict legal binding to provide their patients with the best care and treatment possible. Rule no. 3A of Medical Duty states that it is a duty of any medical professional as he/she legally owes proper care to the patient (Khan, et al 2002, p.71). They may completely refuse to undertake any given case due to any reason, personal or other. Once they accept any patient, they are bound to providing proper medical treatment. As Keir et al (2007, p.33), providing detailed and the best possible care to their patients is what actually constitutes proper and efficient practice of medicine. If in case the professional fails to deliver the kind of ser vice that would be given in any normal circumstances then it is referred to as Medical Negligence (Barnes, 2001, p.113). In such a case, if the patient suffers an injury due to the doctor’s negligence of medical professional, then the patient reserves the right to sue the medical professional against medical malpractice (Bardale 2011, p.23) In the recent times of capitalism, pharmacies are also not left behind in the rat race of increasing profits (Gad, 2009, 04). Following table gives the evidence Table: Top 25 Drug Companies by Sale (2006) According to Rat h (2003, p.50), pharmaceutical industry is now striving to driving its forces to increase the sale of its product rather than achieving its main motive of curing the diseases in the world. The ultimate aim to innovate new medicines is only to relieve symptoms of any disease, not to eradicate it. Eradicating and eliminating any disease through thoughtful research in the field of medicine would mean destroying the chance to earn millions of dollars in form of prescriptions. For this purpose, new breakthrough and advancement in the field of curing any disease are suppressed and do not get the kind of attention it deserves. This suppression is the reason why many fatal diseases are still incurable. In order to boost sales, pharmaceutical companies are deliberately holding back information which the public has every right to know like the common side effects and risks to other organs of the body.(Company, 2002, p. 326) The real face of drug companies (Luisa, 2011) shares the experiences of Gwen Olsen, who used to belong the same industry. Gwen states the frightening and alarming truth about this industry which has become extremely corrupt, running only after the financial gain rather than medicating its patients. Olsen (2009, p. 09) even states that as a Medical Sales Representative, she was trained by the company to give misinformation to doctors and medical professionals about the medicines her company produced. It has just become a game of money where disease seasons are awaited and KPIs matter more than empathy towards curing their patients. Agell (2004) talks about her personal experience with the viciousness of pharmaceutical industry. She had the honor of spending about twenty years of her life for â€Å"

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Essay Example for Free

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Essay Teen deaths for any reason are tragic losses of life and potential. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), one in five teenagers in the U.S. seriously considers suicide annually, and approximately 1,700 die by suicide each year. Both the CDC and the National Mental Health Association (NMHA) point out that suicide rates for teens have tripled since 1960 making it the third leading cause of adolescent death and the second cause among college students. Yet, according to the American Psychological Association, teen suicide is preventable, and they identify possible warning signs. They also note that more than 90 percent of suicide deaths are from mental illness and substance-abuse disorders. Not letting facts stand in their way, activist groups continue to claim, based on a flawed 1989 study that has been completely discredited, that 30 percent of all teens who attempt suicide are homosexuals. Instead, teen suicide reports from the major psychological and pediatric associations either do not even mention sexual identity or mention it near the bottom of a long list of other risk factors associated with teen suicide. Other teen suicide factors family breakup through divorce, alcohol or drug abuse, and family dysfunction are mentioned in all the major health organization publications as main factors in teen suicide. Research from Columbia University Medical Center, published in APAM, cites different reasons for girls and boys suicides. The researchers collected data from over 8,000 students in New York City high schools in 2005. For females, recent dating violence is a primary cause of attempted suicide. For teen males, a lifetime history of sexual assault is associated with suicide attempts. Dr. Elyse Olshen, lead researcher for the study, reported that girls who have been physically abused by a boyfriend are 60 percent more likely to attempt suicide than those who have not. For boys, sexual abuse over an extended period of time is more likely to be the determining factor for male teen suicide. The American Psychiatric Association (APA) identified the strong risk factors for teen suicide as depression, alcohol, or drug abuse and aggressive, disruptive behaviors. They also mentioned family loss, instability, and unplanned pregnancy. Suicidal teens, they reported, feel alone, hopeless, and reject ed and are especially vulnerable when they have experienced a loss, humiliation, or trauma, such as poor grades, breakup with boyfriend or  girlfriend, argument with parents, parental discord, separation, or divorce. The APA declared that 53 percent of young people who commit suicide are substance abusers. NMHA identifies feelings of anger and resentment and the inability to see beyond a temporary situation as the main factors in teen suicide attempts. KidsHealth quotes Dr. David Sheslow, a pediatric psychologist, who identifies drugs and alcohol as leading causes of suicide in teens. Further, KidsHealth reports, A teen with an adequate support network of friends, family, religious affiliations, peer groups or extracurricular activities may have an outlet to deal with his everyday frustrations. A teen without an adequate support network may feel disconnected and isolated from his family and peer groups. Its these teens who are at increased risk for suicide. Other problems identified by KidsHealth are divorce, alcoholism of a family member, domestic violence, physical and sexual abuse, repeated failures at school, substance abuse, and self-destructive behavior. The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry publishes a fact sheet about teen suicide. Causes they list? Stress, confusion, self-doubt, pressure to succeed, financial uncertainty, fears about growing up, divorce, formation of a new family with step-parents and step-siblings, and moving to a new community. They clearly identify suicide feelings as a mental disorder. The American Academy of Pediatrics, in their publication about preventing teen suicide, identifies the long term impact of child abuse as the leading cause of attempted suicides among women. They emphasize the greater pressures of modern life, competition for grades and college admissions, and increased violence in the media as contributing factors. They also cite the lack of parental involvement because of divorce, parents work schedules, and limited family life. One study reported that 90 percent of suicidal teenagers believed that their families do not understand them. Viewing teen suicide through the distorted, single-vision lens of the homosexual activists puts large numbers of teens at risk. Those who insist that the problem of teen suicide is primarily among teens who struggle over their sexual identity overlook the vast majority of potential teen suicide victims those who have other emotional or psychological issues, those who abuse drugs and other substances, and especially those who have suffered sexual violence and abuse. The problems of emotionally and physically battered teens must be  faced and their minds and bodies healed; otherwise, the rate of teen suicides will continue to rise. Janice Shaw Crouse, Ph.D. is executive director and senior fellow of Concerned Women for Americas Beverly LaHaye Institute.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Separation Of Church And State Essay -- History Historical Education R

Separation of Church and State By the middle of the 20th Century, the United States had emerged as a world power. It accomplished this through its leadership in defeating Germany and Japan in World War II. These two countries' main objective was to enslave the world and destroy political, religious, and economic freedom. In Germany or Japan, anyone who disagreed with these goals, or was different was destroyed. This was a common practice in these two fascist countries. Unfortunately, at the same time of its emergence as a world power, the United States began to slip into a form of judicial fascism. This slide began when the U.S. Supreme Court began to abandon the religious principles on which this nation was founded. The abandonment officially began in 1947 in Everson v. Board of Education, when the court announced, â€Å"The 1st amendment has erected a wall between church and state. That wall must be kept high and impregnable. We could not approve the slightest breach.† (Barton, Original†¦ p.13) This exact case began the reversal of Supreme Court trends and opinions that had lasted for one hundred and fifty years. Now, for almost fifty years, the Supreme Court , and the United States population in general, has used the phrase â€Å"separation of church and state† when referring to the religion clause of the 1st Amendment. The 1st amendment's actual wording is â€Å"Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof.† (Barton, America: To†¦ p.15) But, because of the Supreme Court's continuous citing of a â€Å" wall of separation† and â€Å"separation of church and state†, the public's idea of the 1st amendment's religion clause has been shaped by phrases which do not appear anywhere in the Constitution. The First Congress, which passed this Amendment in 1789, intended to prohibit the establishment of a national religion. In fact, they didn't mind the establishment of â€Å"official† religions by states. At the start of the American Revolution, nine of the thirteen colonies had established religions, so obviously no one was opposed to the coupling of church and state. Unfortunately, this separation talk has been so furiously pounded into our heads, that a picture is painted falsely into our heads; a picture of a roomful of godless atheists, agnostics, and deists framing our Constitution in 178... ...efore Everson v. Board of Education, the Supreme Court made countless decisions regarding religion that directly contradict the past 50 years of religious oppression. Some of these decisions refer to the U.S. as a Christian country. One, Davis v. Beason, in 1889, strikes down bigamy and polygamy, rejecting arguments that they were religious exercises. The Court states Davis, a Mormon, was wrong, and that his actions were crimes by â€Å"the laws of all civilized and Christian countries.† This decision clearly shows the intent of the legislators of the era.(Barton, Original.. p.64-65) The solution to this problem lies in educating the people of this great republic as to the intent of the Founders. In the evidence presented, it can be clearly seen that the judicial fascism being practiced today and now, is clearly not what the Founding Fathers intended for our country. The solution to the religious liberty/school prayer debate lies in the hands of Congress.(Barton, A guide.. p.36) The media portrays supporters of a school prayer amendment as a radical fringe minority, when recent studies and surveys have shown that 71% of people favor an amendment for school prayer. Separation Of Church And State Essay -- History Historical Education R Separation of Church and State By the middle of the 20th Century, the United States had emerged as a world power. It accomplished this through its leadership in defeating Germany and Japan in World War II. These two countries' main objective was to enslave the world and destroy political, religious, and economic freedom. In Germany or Japan, anyone who disagreed with these goals, or was different was destroyed. This was a common practice in these two fascist countries. Unfortunately, at the same time of its emergence as a world power, the United States began to slip into a form of judicial fascism. This slide began when the U.S. Supreme Court began to abandon the religious principles on which this nation was founded. The abandonment officially began in 1947 in Everson v. Board of Education, when the court announced, â€Å"The 1st amendment has erected a wall between church and state. That wall must be kept high and impregnable. We could not approve the slightest breach.† (Barton, Original†¦ p.13) This exact case began the reversal of Supreme Court trends and opinions that had lasted for one hundred and fifty years. Now, for almost fifty years, the Supreme Court , and the United States population in general, has used the phrase â€Å"separation of church and state† when referring to the religion clause of the 1st Amendment. The 1st amendment's actual wording is â€Å"Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof.† (Barton, America: To†¦ p.15) But, because of the Supreme Court's continuous citing of a â€Å" wall of separation† and â€Å"separation of church and state†, the public's idea of the 1st amendment's religion clause has been shaped by phrases which do not appear anywhere in the Constitution. The First Congress, which passed this Amendment in 1789, intended to prohibit the establishment of a national religion. In fact, they didn't mind the establishment of â€Å"official† religions by states. At the start of the American Revolution, nine of the thirteen colonies had established religions, so obviously no one was opposed to the coupling of church and state. Unfortunately, this separation talk has been so furiously pounded into our heads, that a picture is painted falsely into our heads; a picture of a roomful of godless atheists, agnostics, and deists framing our Constitution in 178... ...efore Everson v. Board of Education, the Supreme Court made countless decisions regarding religion that directly contradict the past 50 years of religious oppression. Some of these decisions refer to the U.S. as a Christian country. One, Davis v. Beason, in 1889, strikes down bigamy and polygamy, rejecting arguments that they were religious exercises. The Court states Davis, a Mormon, was wrong, and that his actions were crimes by â€Å"the laws of all civilized and Christian countries.† This decision clearly shows the intent of the legislators of the era.(Barton, Original.. p.64-65) The solution to this problem lies in educating the people of this great republic as to the intent of the Founders. In the evidence presented, it can be clearly seen that the judicial fascism being practiced today and now, is clearly not what the Founding Fathers intended for our country. The solution to the religious liberty/school prayer debate lies in the hands of Congress.(Barton, A guide.. p.36) The media portrays supporters of a school prayer amendment as a radical fringe minority, when recent studies and surveys have shown that 71% of people favor an amendment for school prayer.

Monday, January 13, 2020

The Pedestrian

The Pedestrian by Ray Bradbury Utopia: an ideal place (fictional) This short story is an example of Dystopian fiction – dealing with a society that embodies a flawed perfection – achieved at a cost. In the story, Ray Bradbury attacks a society which is, in effect, a police state – a totalitarian regime. The sole representative of the regime is, appropriately, the police car. Mead is a non-conformist whose ‘crime’ is to walk for pleasure – a most simple and natural activity.The oppressive nature of the regime is emphasised by the fact that such a basic human activity is prohibited and has been eradicated – as indicated by the disused sidewalks. The nature of this soulless society is emphasised again and again by numerous images connected with death: â€Å"dark windows† â€Å"not unlike walking through a graveyard† â€Å"tomb-like buildings† and â€Å"grey phantoms†By contrast the vivid sensory description of M ead’s walk is conveyed through crisp natural images which evoke the senses and show his delight in simple pleasures and sensations: breathing in the cold November air and its â€Å"crystal frost† makes his â€Å"lungs blaze like a Christmas tree inside† the â€Å"branches filled with invisible snow†. This is a society which (it is implied) is kept docile and uninformed by a diet of poor quality TV programmes (which, we assume from the Police Car’s incredulity when Mead explains that he has no TV, are controlled by the State).The minds of the population have been dulled by the TV they are incessantly and acceptingly fed. Only Mead can see through the banality and predictability of the programmes: †Where are the cowboys rushing? † †A dozen assorted murders† †A comedian falling off the stage† There is nothing to stimulate the intellect of the population here. Despite the (large) number of channels, there is a comple te absence of any political programme which might challenge the government. Possibly suggesting brain-washing.If not, it is clear from the way that the population is described that they are not capable intellectually of challenging the government – they are portrayed as automatons – unthinking, unchallenging, uninformed. The suggestion is that the minds of this population are chained and dulled by the government’s actions. Informed, intelligent, alert people would pose a threat and ask awkward questions. Mead is the last of such people and his nightly covert walks are, we presume a way to find like-minded people.His rebellion, if we can call it that, is hardly the most active – he seems to have accepted or resigned himself to the fact that he can no longer pursue his career and seems a broken man at the end of the story. Setting In contrast to the rest of the population, the individuality and free-thinking nature of Mead’s mind is emphasised by nat ural images. The simile â€Å"only his shadow moving like the shadow of a hawk† conveys both an impression of a hunter and an image of soaring freedom.The fact that â€Å"he could imagine himself upon the centre of a plain, a wintry, windless Arizona desert† highlights his individuality and the sense of emptiness that he feels in a society that is, effectively, dead. The rest of the population and the city itself are portrayed as being dead. The buildings and city are architecturally dead – the â€Å"buckling concrete walk† suggesting decay and â€Å"tomb-like buildings† suggesting that those inside are dead. Even Nature itself seemed outraged by the setting and tried, it seemed, to bury it â€Å"like cement was vanishing under flowers and grass†The Police Car The imagery associated with the police car is harsh, cold, threatening, oppressive, that of hunter and its paralysed prey â€Å"flashed a fierce white cone of light upon him† â €Å"It smelled of riveted steel. It smelled of harsh antiseptic† Images which mirror the nature of the regime which is personified and represented by the car. Frequent use of word-choice linked to metallic, robotic, mechanical ideas. The voice of the police car also sounds robotic: short, sharp peremptory commands contrast with Mead’s fuller more warm and personal replies.The clearest indication of the nature of the regime comes in the interrogation: The lack of recognition of Mead’s profession and the incredulity that he does not have a TV set hint strongly at state control. In this dystopian society, anything connected with the arts: creativity, beauty, the senses†¦ is not recognised. Only that which is manufactured is recognised. Books and writing have no place in this regime. In a similar manner, the police car is unable to comprehend that Mead was simply walking for its own pleasurable sake. â€Å"Walking, just walking, walking? The repetition of walk ing gives the impression of the car’s brain malfunction. It cannot grasp that anyone would do something simply for the pleasure of it, not without a reason. Only Mead is capable of wry humour (a human quality) Are you married, Mr Mead No Nobody wanted me, said Leonard Mead with a Smile. Irony Mead is to be taken to an asylum – â€Å"To the Psychiatric Centre for Research on Regressive Tendencies†. Note the use of official sounding language – a euphemism designed to hide the true purpose of such a place – echoing SovietAsylums in which those who actively opposed the state’s political ideals were sent to an ‘asylum’ to be ‘re-educated’ – brain-washed until they did accept what the state wanted them to believe. The great irony here is that Mead – the only sane man in this insane society is being sent to an asylum. Symbolism. On their way to the asylum through, they pass Mead’s house. It is ablaze w ith lights in contrast to the dark city. â€Å"electric light brilliantly lit, every window a loud yellow illumination. It is a symbol of hope of vibrant life – light is a universal symbol of hope, but the car is swallowed up once more into the darkness (literally and figuratively). â€Å"The car moved down the empty river-bed streets† natural images of decay and life-lessness. Structure Mead’s capture is represented in stages. Contrast the positive, empowering image of him as a hawk – conveying a sense of freedom with his reaction to the car †not unlike a night moth, stunned by the illumination† The short story remains fairly uneventful throughout, therefore the structure reflects this.However, the featurelessness of structure (which in turn reflects the bleakness of the landscape) is broken by the tension created by the interrogation of the police car. The apparent tedium of the walk through the grey town is transformed into a gripping tens e episode. Near the end, the short story bursts into another high point of hope with the wonderful climactic symbol of the house ablaze with light – a symbol of hope. Nevertheless, we are again plunged into dark anti-climax as we realise that the house is only one lone point of hope, soon to be submerged within the blanket of darkness everywhere.Themes: 1. The distrust and ultimate destruction of the individual in a totalitarian state 2. Bradbury considers such a police state to be alien to the natural laws of Mankind – man should be free to voice his feelings. 3. He points to the dangers of state-controlled media which can brainwash a nation, State-controlled TV programmes being, effectively, propaganda. 4. He points to the dangers of a docile, unquestioning society. 5. Glancing euphemistic references to ‘psychiatric hospitals’. 6. Pessimistic – the light in the darkness is extinguished.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

The First Wave Of Feminism - 767 Words

Sociology – Unit 4 Assignment Unit 4 Assignment is worth 50 points Assignment – What is feminism? Describe how it has evolved in the United States and include the three phases. The belief that men and women should have equal rights and opportunities organized activity in support of woman s rights and interests The first wave of feminism took place in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, emerging out of an environment of urban industrialism and liberal, socialist politics. The goal of this wave was to open up opportunities for women, with a focus on the right to vote. The wave formally began at the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848 when three hundred men and women rallied to the cause of equality for women. Elizabeth†¦show more content†¦The third wave of feminism began in the mid-90 s and was informed by post-colonial and post-modern thinking. In this phase many constructs were destabilized, including the notions of universal womanhood, body, gender, sexuality and â€Å"heteronormativity the belief that people fall into distinct and complementary genders (man and woman) with natural roles in life.) An aspect of third wave feminism that mystified the mothers of the earlier feminist movement was the re adoption by young feminists of the very lip-stick, high-heels, and cleavage proudly exposed by low cut necklines that the first two phases of the movement identified with male oppression. Pink floor expressed this new position when she said that it s possible to have a push-up bra and a brain at the same time. The fourth wave of feminism is still a captivating silhouette. A writer for Elle Magazin recently interviewed me about the waves of feminism and asked if the second and third waves may have â€Å"failed or dialed down† because the social and economic gains had been mostly sparkle, little substance, and whether at some point women substituted equal rights for career and for ones self. I replied that the second wave of feminism ought not be characterized as having failed, nor was glitter all that it generated. Quite the contrary; many goals of the second wave were met: more women in

Friday, December 27, 2019

What Is Phototropism

You placed your favorite plant on a sunny windowsill. Soon, you notice the plant bending toward the window instead of growing straight upward. What in the world is this plant doing  and why is it doing this? What Is Phototropism? The phenomenon you are witnessing is called phototropism. For a hint on what this word means, note that the prefix photo means light, and the suffix tropism means turning. So, phototropism is when plants turn or bend toward light. Why Do Plants Experience Phototropism? Plants need light to stimulate the production of energy; this process is called photosynthesis. The light generated from the sun or from other sources is needed, along with water and carbon dioxide, to produce sugars for the plant to use as energy. Oxygen is also produced, and many life-forms require this for respiration. Phototropism is likely a survival mechanism adopted by plants so that they can get as much light as possible. When plant leaves open toward light, more photosynthesis can take place, allowing for more energy to be generated. How Did Early Scientists Explain Phototropism? Early opinions on the cause of phototropism varied among scientists. Theophrastus (371 B.C.-287 B.C.) believed that phototropism was caused by the removal of fluid from the illuminated side of the plants stem, and Francis Bacon (1561-1626) later postulated that phototropism was due to wilting. Robert Sharrock (1630-1684) believed plants curved in response to fresh air, and John Ray (1628-1705) thought plants leaned toward the cooler temperatures nearer to the window. It was up to Charles Darwin (1809-1882) to conduct the first relevant experiments regarding phototropism. He hypothesized that a substance produced in the tip induced the curvature of the plant. Using test plants, Darwin experimented by covering the tips of some plants and leaving others uncovered. The plants with covered tips did not bend toward light. When he covered a lower part of the plant stems but left the tips exposed to the light, those plants moved toward the light. Darwin did not know what the substance produced in the tip was or how it caused the plant stem to bend. However, Nikolai Cholodny and Frits Went found in 1926 that when high levels of this substance moved to the shaded side of a plant stem, that stem would bend and curve so that the tip would move toward the light. The exact chemical composition of the substance, found to be the first identified plant hormone, was not elucidated until Kenneth Thimann (1904-1977) isolated and identified it as indole-3-acetic acid, or auxin. How Does Phototropism Work? The current thought on the mechanism behind phototropism is as follows. Light, at a wavelength of around 450 nanometers (blue/violet light), illuminates a plant. A protein called a photoreceptor catches the light, reacts to it and triggers a response. The group of blue-light photoreceptor proteins responsible for phototrophism are called phototropins. It is not clear exactly how phototropins signal the movement of auxin, but it is known that auxin moves to the darker, shaded side of the stem in response to the light exposure. Auxin stimulates the release of hydrogen ions in the cells in the shaded side of the stem, which cause the pH of the cells to decrease. The decrease in pH activates enzymes  (called expansins), which cause the cells to swell and lead  the stem to bend toward the light. Fun Facts About Phototropism If you have a plant experiencing phototropism in a window, try turning the plant in the opposite direction, so that the plant is bending away from the light. It takes only about eight hours for the plant to turn back toward the light.Some plants grow away from light, a phenomenon called negative phototropism. (Actually, plant roots experience this; roots certainly dont grow toward light.  Another word for what they are experiencing is gravitropism---bending toward a gravitational pull.)Photonasty might sound like a picture of something yucky, but it is not. It is similar to phototropism in that it involves the movement of a plant due to light stimulus, but in photonasty, the movement is not toward the light stimulus, but in a predetermined direction. The movement is determined by the plant itself, not by the light. An example of photonasty is the opening and closing of leaves or flowers, due to the presence or absence of light.

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Comparison of Online and Offline Retail Environment of Car...

The offline retail environment of the automobile industry is that of manufacture to intermediary to consumer. The process from which the product (car) proceeds from manufacturer to consumer is that of through the automobile dealer. This intermediary batch purchases a number of models from the manufacturer and sells them from the ‘lot’ or storefront. This placement and presentation of the product has proved largely successful. The tangible product is viewed, test driven and purchased from the intermediary. An advantage of the offline retail environment is that of the face to face (F2F) transaction environment. The purchase of a car requires high involvement between the supplier and consumer and can be argued demands a customer†¦show more content†¦Rather than solely online companies, who may only offer ghost storefronts with no inventory and little reputation to defend. (Pitta, Franzak Fowler 2006) Value creation has been described as the difference between the amount that the consumer is willing to pay for a product and the costs of providing the product. Value can also be added to the product through outside or support (Porter, 1985) activities such as brand awareness, speed of delivery, after sales service. Resource Based View (RBV) theorists argue that information technology (IT) resources can be used today in an online environment to enable a firm to improve efficiency regardless of whether mimicked by competitors, or may yield performance impacts unique to a firm relative to its’ competitors.† (Melville, Kraemer Gurbaxani 2004) A major factor in RBV and enhancing value creation better than a company’s competitors is that of competitive heterogeneity. This refers to enduring and systematic performance differences among relatively close rivals. (Hoopes, Madsen Walker, 2003) Resources are the tangible and intangible assets of a firm that can be used in the value creation process and the RBV consists of six conditions necessary for a firm to confer a sustainable competitive advantage (Melville, Kraemer Gurbaxani 2004) and are as follows. A valuable resource can be tangible and intangible; it is aShow MoreRelatedBarnes and Noble Strategic Audit6762 Words   |  28 PagesAnalysis: Barnes Noble Executive Summary Barnes Noble is a key player in the Book Retail Industry. This mature industry has been experiencing slow growth over the last several years, much slower than overall retail sales. Barriers to entry into this industry are quite high, and suppliers have modest influence over booksellers. The introduction of the Internet has brought about many changes to this industry. It has increased rivalry, buyer power, and substitutes. 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